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台積電也要喊他們前輩!歷史上稱霸世界的台灣產業|Famous Taiwanese Industries that Ruled the World



近年來台灣以「科技島」的形象在國際舞台上深植人心,特別是因為台積電(TSMC)在半導體產業的卓越表現。然而,在「護國神山」台積電出現之前,台灣早已有其他幾個產業在國際間享有盛名,為台灣的經濟發展奠定了堅實的基礎。


這些產業不僅見證台灣經濟的成長,也展示台灣在各個領域的創新與努力。讓我們一同回顧這些歷史產業,了解它們如何塑造今天的台灣吧!


In recent years, Taiwan has established a strong international image as the “Tech Island,” especially due to the outstanding performance of TSMC (Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company) in the semiconductor industry. However, before the rise of TSMC, Taiwan had already gained international fame through several other industries, laying a solid foundation for the country's economic development.


These industries not only witnessed Taiwan's economic growth but also showcased the nation's innovation and efforts across various fields. Let's revisit these historical industries and understand how they have shaped today's Taiwan!


|好喝珍奶的重要元素!產糖也產茶的福爾摩沙 The secret behind Taiwanese bubble tea - premium sugar and tea only in Taiwan


台灣的糖業歷史可追溯至荷蘭殖民時期(1624~1668)。當時荷蘭人發現台灣的亞熱帶氣候非常適合種植甘蔗,於是積極開發這一資源,將糖產品外銷至日本和中國,掀開了台灣糖業的序幕。到了日治時期(1895~1946),台灣的糖業進入全盛時期,出口量僅次於古巴和印尼爪哇,排名世界第三。由於當時砂糖是奢侈品,在台南,主人甚至會特地在貴賓的菜餚中加糖,以示重視,這種做法也反映了糖在當時社會中的特殊地位。


1860年,台灣開港通商後,另一項讓台灣享譽國際的產業興起—茶。蘇格蘭商人約翰·陶德從福建引入茶苗,並開始在台灣種植,經由大稻埕出口至國際市場。這些茶葉迅速在全球市場上崭露頭角,尤其是福爾摩沙烏龍茶,更是在英國獲得了極高的評價。傳說中,這種茶葉甚至被英國維多利亞女王命名為「東方美人」,其獨特的風味和優雅的口感成為國際市場上的珍品。


Taiwan's sugar industry history can be traced back to the Dutch colonial period (1624~1668). The Dutch discovered that Taiwan's subtropical climate was ideal for sugarcane cultivation, and they actively developed this resource, exporting sugar products to Japan and China, thus beginning Taiwan's sugar industry. During the Japanese colonial period (1895~1946), Taiwan's sugar industry reached its peak. The export volume ranked third in the world, only behind Cuba and Java, Indonesia. At that time, sugar was considered a luxury item. In Tainan, hosts would often add sugar to dishes for esteemed guests as a sign of respect, reflecting sugar's special status in society.


In 1860, after Taiwan opened its ports to trade, another industry that brought international fame to Taiwan emerged: tea. Scottish merchant John Dodd introduced tea seedlings from Fujian, China, and began cultivating them in Taiwan. These tea products were then exported through Dadaocheng, Taipei to the international market. The teas quickly gained global recognition, especially Formosan Oolong Tea, which received high praise in the United Kingdom. According to legend, this tea was even named "Oriental Beauty" by Queen Victoria for its unique flavor and elegant taste, making it a prized commodity in the international market. 


|「腦公」算什麼?當「腦丁」才能全家不愁吃穿 Everyone wants to be a camphor worker!


十九世紀末,樟腦成為一種不可或缺的國際貿易商品,廣泛應用於製造賽璐珞,加工為假牙、眼鏡等產品,更是製造火藥的關鍵材料。樟腦的重要性使其在全球貿易中佔有一席之地,而台灣則成為這一行業的中心。由於台灣的氣候非常適合樟樹生長,日治時期台灣的樟腦產量一度佔全球的70%。


這種豐富的資源讓台灣在國際市場上佔據主導地位,而且當時負責開採樟腦的台灣工人「腦丁」月薪竟然是日本工人的六倍之多。這一現象不僅反映了樟腦產業的高利潤,也顯示了台灣在這一領域中的技術優勢和勞動力價值,更讓台灣經濟在全球市場上打響了名號!


In the late 19th century, camphor became an indispensable commodity in international trade. Its extensive use in the production of celluloid, which was used for making dentures, eyeglasses, and other products, as well as its crucial role in gunpowder manufacturing, made camphor highly valuable. Taiwan emerged as a central player in this industry due to its ideal climate for camphor tree cultivation. During the Japanese colonial period, Taiwan's camphor production accounted for a staggering 70% of the global supply.


This abundant resource allowed Taiwan to dominate the international market. Remarkably, the Taiwanese workers responsible for extracting camphor earned six times the salary of their Japanese counterparts. This phenomenon not only reflected the high profitability of the camphor industry but also highlighted Taiwan's technical expertise and the value of its labor force in this field. The prosperity of the camphor industry significantly boosted Taiwan's economy and cemented its reputation on the global stage.


|從世足冠軍賽到罐頭加工,台灣工業起飛啦!Don’t exclude Taiwan’s textile and canning industry!


1950至1970年代,台灣的紡織業是國家重要的經濟支柱,每年的外匯收入一度達到驚人的100億美元。儘管近年來許多工廠逐漸遷往海外,但2022年的世界盃足球賽上展現了台灣製造業的強大實力,台灣廠商與Adidas合作,成功爭取包括冠軍隊伍阿根廷在內的9支國家足球隊的訂單,彰顯了台灣製造在國際市場的影響力!


台灣的罐頭加工業起源於日治時代,戰後迅速轉向出口市場。1970年代,台灣鳳梨罐頭的出口量達到全球第一的四百萬箱。1980年代,洋菇罐頭每年的外匯收入更是高達7,000萬美元。蘆筍罐頭則主要銷往西德,其著名的「津津蘆筍汁」也因此成為台灣家喻戶曉的經典果汁之一。


During the 1950s to 1970s, Taiwan's textile industry served as a pivotal economic lifeline, boasting annual foreign exchange earnings that once reached a staggering 10 billion USD. While factories have gradually relocated overseas in recent years, Taiwan's industrial prowess was showcased vividly in 2022 during the World Cup, where Taiwanese manufacturers collaborated with Adidas to secure orders from nine national football teams, including the championship team, Argentina!


Taiwan's canning industry dates back to the Japanese colonial period, focusing heavily on exports post-World War II. In the 1970s, pineapple can exports soared to 4 million boxes, making Taiwan the global leader. By the 1980s, mushroom canning generated an annual revenue of 70 million USD. Asparagus cans were primarily exported to West Germany, with “Jin Jin Asparagus Juice” becoming a beloved classic juice in Taiwan.


|船業的回收大王:會造船也會拆船!In Taiwan, we not only make but also break ships!


二戰期間高雄港曾遭受美軍嚴重轟炸,導致戰後港內沉船竟多達178艘!不過,這些廢棄的船隻竟然成為戰後高雄拆船業的寶貴資源。自1960年代起,台灣開始大規模進行舊船打撈和拆解的工作,將這些廢船轉化為寶貴的鋼鐵原料,促進了當地鋼鐵工業的發展。


1983年是高雄拆船業的全盛時期,當年的拆解量達到驚人的360多萬噸廢鐵!這不僅顯示了台灣在廢船處理和再利用方面的技術優勢,也反映了當時台灣在全球金屬回收業中的重要地位。高雄的拆船業不僅為當地經濟帶來了收益,也有效解決了戰後舊船處理的重大挑戰,成為台灣工業發展史上的一段輝煌篇章。


During World War II, Kaohsiung Harbor suffered severe bombardment by the US military, resulting in a staggering 178 sunken ships remaining in the harbor post-war! Surprisingly, these abandoned vessels became a valuable resource for Kaohsiung's post-war shipbreaking industry. Starting from the 1960s, Taiwan began large-scale salvaging and dismantling of old ships, converting them into valuable steel materials that boosted the local steel industry's development.


The year 1983 marked the peak of Kaohsiung's shipbreaking industry, with an astonishing dismantling volume exceeding 3.6 million tons of scrap iron! This not only showcased Taiwan's technical expertise in shipwreck processing and recycling but also underscored Taiwan's significant position in the global metal recycling industry. Kaohsiung's shipbreaking industry not only brought substantial economic benefits to the region but also effectively addressed the major challenge of post-war ship disposal, becoming a brilliant chapter in Taiwan's industrial development history.


從糖業、茶業、樟腦,到紡織、罐頭加工和船業,台灣在科技產業崛起之前,已有眾多產業在國際間享有盛名。這些產業不僅見證了台灣經濟的成長,也奠定了今日「科技島」的基礎。透過回顧這些歷史,能讓我們更加理解並珍惜今日台灣的經濟成就!


From sugar, tea, and camphor industries to textiles, canned goods, and shipbreaking, Taiwan had many industries that gained international fame long before the rise of its tech sector. These industries not only witnessed Taiwan's economic growth but also laid the foundation for today's “Tech Island.” By revisiting this history, we can better understand and appreciate Taiwan's economic achievements today!


|Vocabulary list


  • Bombardment 轟炸

  • Cultivation 培育

  • Esteemed 受人尊敬的

  • Indispensable 不可或缺的

  • Pivotal 關鍵的

  • Scrap 廢料

  • Subtropical 亞熱帶的

  • Thrive 蓬勃發展


|參考資料


台灣工業文化資產網,〈港埔拆船往事〉,原文連結:https://muf.pse.is/65g4gz

歷史學柑仔店,〈賞味期限:社會轉型期的台灣罐頭食品業〉,原文連結:https://muf.pse.is/65g4sq

STOCK FEEL,〈主題投資:紡織股有哪些?台灣紡織業轉型方向?紡織業完整介紹!

〉,原文連結:https://muf.pse.is/65g4zj

遠見雜誌,〈一杯珍奶搖出台灣新經濟奇蹟〉,原文連結:https://muf.pse.is/65g53x


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